Note that when you are citing a source, the apostrophe is attached to the author’s name, not to the in-text citation. This paper builds on Adams (2017)’s research. To make your name plural (indicating “we are the Smiths”), add an ‘s’ or in some cases, an ‘es’. Examples: one boy's hat. It usually means the name is a contraction of something longer. You're not trying to make your last name possessive, which is what adding an apostrophe does (the Smith's). In special cases, such as when forming a plural of a word that is not normally a noun, some writers add an apostrophe for clarity. Rule 2b. If you want possessive of pluralized family name, you need to pluralize the first and simply make name possessive using the apostrophe… ; If something is plural and showing possession, put an apostrophe after the “s.”You can also add another ‘s’ after the apostrophe, but it isn’t usually required. one woman's hat. Instead, you're making your last name plural to indicate that the card is from all of your family members (the Smiths). Correct: Apostrophes are confusing. An apostrophe is usually used in these types of instances to indicate that the word has been contracted. one woman's hat. Similarly, you could include an apostrophe or apostrophe S … one actress's hat. As you can see, for a singular proper name ending in the letter S, you can choose to either write an apostrophe or apostrophe S. Your choice would depend upon the style guide you’re using. Some guides allow you to add only an apostrophe in cases where the extra s would be awkward to pronounce aloud. Incorrect: Apostrophe's are confusing. Apostrophe rules can be broken into four main categories. There are various approaches to plurals for abbreviations, single letters, and numerals. Never use “its’,” and only use “it’s” if you’re going to use a contraction for “it is.” As for numbers that aren’t years, you shouldn’t add an apostrophe plus “s” to the end. Main Apostrophe Takeaways: Apostrophes have three main uses: to show ownership, omissions, and plural letters, numbers, and symbols ; An apostrophe stands in for the missing letter(s) in a contraction like don’t or can’t. Incorrect: We've had many happy Christmas's. For instance, English commonly abbreviates the word "not" following some verbs, such as: Did not = didn't Can not = can't Will not = won't and so on. Check Punctuation: Pluralized Family Name. Correct: We've had many happy Christmases. Use the apostrophe to show possession. Use an apostrophe with contractions. Read on to discover all the apostrophe rules you'll ever need to know! one child's hat. I won’t go into depth on grammatical rules and details (there are many I don’t follow and I’m certainly not an English teacher), but, just remember that typically, you should not be using an apostrophe in your last name. Do not use an apostrophe + s to make a regular noun plural. Examples: Correct: Doesn’t, it’s, ’tis, can’t, you’d, should’ve, rock ‘n’ roll, etc. The report clarified Perkins’ job evaluation. If you want to know more about using apostrophes with names, this page will guide you. If in doubt, however, adding ’s is the safest choice. Place the apostrophe before the s to show singular possession. The apostrophe is placed where a letter or letters have been removed. Ms. Chang's house NOTE: Although names ending in s or an s sound are not required to have the second s added in possessive form, it is preferred. Rule # 6. Incorrect: does’nt. For most nouns you just need to add an apostrophe and an s to show that something belongs to a person or thing. 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