The very straight trunk of White Pine is punctuated by a whorl of lateral branches every one to two feet, and from this sequential arrangement, a close approximation of the age of the tree can be determined. The Eastern White Pine is the largest eastern conifer, often growing up to 150 feet tall and up to 40 inches in diameter, depending on the soil. nutrition, recipes, history, uses & more! It is the state tree of Maine and Michigan. White Pine Tree - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Pinus, the pines, is a genus of approximately 111 extant tree and shrub species. Also known as the Northern White Pine, this pine tree is a fast growing, sturdy, and majestic tree that can live up to 200 years. Pine needles contain a wealth of nutrients. It is in the Pinus (pine) family which has about 100 species worldwide. Needles measure anywhere from 5 to 15 cm (2 to 6”) long, are three-sided, finely toothed, and occur in bundles of 5. In this video I go over the White Pine and it's identification features as well as it's uses. Its curve upper branches have a pronounced upward shape, and the length of its limbs often varies considerably from one whorl to the next. White Pine Twig, Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, White Pine Leaves - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, ISU Extension and Outreach Pine needles grow in clusters on the branch which helps tell these evergreens apart from other conifers. Wildlife Habitat Programs and Consultation, Alternate, simple, double-toothed with unequal leaf bases. Please click here for more information. north-east United States (zones 4-7), but do grow elsewhere. To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.). Take into account such facets of a pine as its needles, its size, the cones and its bark, and you will get a good idea of what type of pine it is. Young bark is thin, greyish-green, and smooth. Pictured above is a mature eastern white pine. please check out our, Wild food can help treat various medical conditions. All rights reserved. Female cones are what stands out. The cones are 3-6 inches long, gradually tapering, with cone scales without prickles and light tan to whitish in color on outer edge of the scales. The fine-textured leaves and the asymmetric shape of older trees make white pine one of the easiest conifers to identify from a distance. The eastern white pine can grow to be more than 40 metres tall. White pine is easy to identify. As a member of the Pine Family, it is related to other Pines as well as the Firs, Larches, Spruces, and Hemlocks. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) cultivars. 339 Science II Simply count the number of whorls from bottom to top. Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) Species description:Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a 5-needled conifer classified as a stone pine which includes five species worldwide. The bark has a strong resistance to fire. They can be ground down to use in baking or cooking. Eastern White Pine is a tree native to eastern North America. Older classifications split the genus into three … TreeHelp.com notes that about 35 separate species of pines grow native to North America, with other ornamental species introduced for use in landscaping. Leaves (needles) are soft, flexible and bluish-green to silver green in color and are regularly arranged in bundles of five. This fast-growing evergreen with long, soft, blue-green needles is commonly found as far north as Newfoundland and as far south as northern Georgia, a span covering growing zones 3 to 8. EdibleWildFood.com is informational in nature. Branches are stout, irregular in shape, and grow horizontal to ascending. Pine Tree Identification by Needles (With Pictures) The best way to identify pine trees (genus Pinus) is by looking at their needle-like leaves. Look for flaky bark to identify a mature pine tree. Also known as the Northern White Pine, this pine tree is a fast growing, sturdy, and majestic tree that can live up to 200 years. Identification, health, White pine is native to northeast Iowa, plus isolated native stands in Hardin, and Muscatine counties. Although the inner and outer park can be used as a food source this is only in a survival situation. Eastern white pine is now widely grown in plantation forestry within its native area. please check out our White Pine PDF magazine. Male and female cones grow on the same tree. The terminal buds are ovoid in shape, about 3/8 of an inch long, tapering to an abrupt slender tip, and have light brown scales. A pine tree’s bark will be smooth when the tree is young, but this changes as it ages. The tallest tree on record in New York State is an Eastern White Pine. The eastern white pine female cones measure 8 to 20 cm (3 to 8”) long and they hang downward from the branches. The genus is currently split into two subgenera: subgenus Pinus (hard pines), and subgenus Strobus (soft pines).Each of the subgenera have been further divided into sections based on chloroplast DNA sequencing and whole plastid genomic analysis. White pines will have a smooth bark no matter their age. The female cone matures in two to three years and drop soon after shedding the seeds. Pinus strobus is the state tree of Maine and Michigan and is the Ontario arboreal emblem. Pine tree identification hinges on your ability to look at all the aspects of a pine tree and categorize it from the data you accumulate. White pine is one of two Michigan native conifers commonly used for Christmas trees, along with balsam fir. Historically this tree is known for many uses including ship masts; today, it is used in construction and in carpentry. It shrinks and swells very little, making it ideal for doors and sashes. It was the leader in the lumber markets and still demands an important place in todays market. Until about 1890, white pine was considered the species of choice for most commercial uses. It is also used for boxes, crates, toys, and many other items. Plantings do best on well drained soils, with moderately good moisture holding capacity, and soils that are slightly acidic. This is a dense tree with soft, green needles. Some wild plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects. For more in-depth information (e.g. While the West Coast has taller trees, the eastern white pine is the biggest conifer native to eastern North America. Pine tree identification Eastern white pines are a tall species and grow to up to 230 ft. (70 m). Eastern white pine seeds are favored by black bears, rabbits, red squirrels and many birds, especially red crossbills. IDENTIFICATION There are more than a hundred species of pine in the world. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. AL-Plant Identification Resource (Auburn University) (PIST) CT-University of Connecticut Plant Database (PIST) Canada-Official Plants of Ontario (PIST) Encyclopedia of Life Species Abstract (PIST) Forestry Images (PIST) IL-Selecting Trees for your Home (University of Illinois) (PIST) IL-vPLANTS (PIST) NC-Plant Fact Sheet (NCSU) (PIST) Naturally, it grows on bluffs, ridges and wooded slopes on soils with good internal drainage. White pine (Pinus strobus), red or Norway pine (P. resinosa) and jack pine (P. banksiana) all have needles in bundles or clumps called fascicles. Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. White Pine are known to attain a height of around 230 ft! Plantings on dry, exposed, calcareous soils will often fail. nutrition, medicinal values, recipes, historical information, harvesting tips, etc.) This behemoth can grow to be as tall as 80 feet and as wide as 40 feet. I've long been operating under the misguided belief that a neat way to distinguish white pines and red pines is by number of needles: white pines have … All information, photographs and web content contained in this website is Copyright © EdibleWildFood.com 2020. We are not health professionals, medical doctors, nor are we nutritionists. Distinguishing between the high elevation white pines in western North America can … Balsamic Vinegar, Chewy Pine Granola Bars, Coconut Pine Cookies, Conifer Muffins, Easy-to-Make Pine Cookies, No Bake Pine Treats, Pine Apple Crisp, Pine Cake, Pine Cookies, Pine Muffins, Pine Rum Balls. Who’s in the pine family (Pinaceae)? nutrition, medicinal values, recipes, historical information, harvesting tips, etc.) It is large, soft, five-needled pine native to eastern North America. The bark on young trees is smooth and light gray, becoming dark gray to black with flat plates separated by shallow fissures on older trees. Twigs are flexible, green and in the first year, hairy. They are eastern white pine (Pinus strobus), redcedar, balsam fir, common juniper and yew. Seed Stratification: Prechill for 2 months at 34°F to 40°F. Both red pine and eastern white pine are found throughout the Northeast. Spruce, fir, and hemlock needles grow singularly on the branch. Western White Pine The western white pine is an ornamental species of tree that is blessed with an incredible endurance capacity. The bark is grayish to reddish-brown in color. They are similar pine species that take a little practice to learn to tell apart. (click on each photo to enlarge image) Needles: Occur in bundles of 5; 2-4" long; white lines on all 3 surfaces of each 3-sided needle. Alder Superior Ash Rustic Aspen Basswood Beech European Birch Cambia Cedar Aromatic Cherry Cottonwood Cypress Hickory Maple Oak Red Oak Red Qrtd Oak Red Rift Oak White Oak White Qrtd Oak White Rift Poplar Pine Furniture Pine Northern Sassafras Walnut Exotic Species. Unique identifying markers are the tree's branching rings which are added each year and the only five-needled eastern pine. They have intermediate shade tolerance. White pine blister rust, white pine weevil, and deer browsing are problems that take a heavy toll on the tree's survival. Needle bundles cluster in a brush-like formation. It tends to prefer cool, humid areas with well-drained soils. Michael Kudish lists a 275-year-old Eastern White Pine in Paul Smiths that was 49 inches in diameter. The beautiful coniferous tree has an open crown. White Pine Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. Habitat: Found growing on sandy or rocky steep wooded slopes. It is a large pine tree with historical significance as the Iroquois (Native American Haudenosaunee) considered it as the “Tree of Peace” and chose it as a symbol for the unity of the Iroquois Confederacy. Even though it is not native in most of Iowa, it is a common tree in Iowa's landscape because it has been planted extensively for ornamental purposes, Christmas trees, wildlife habitat, windbreaks and timber production. White pine was the species the lumber industry was founded upon in the Northeastern United States. Leaves: Alternate, simple, double-toothed with unequal leaf bases, Seed Bearing Frequency: Every 3 to 10 years. Pine needles can be dried and ground into smaller parts for tea. Click, All listed plants are found in central-east Canada and Can be found in the eastern half of Iowa but mainly in the extreme northeast. There are many layers of scales that are broken into irregular blocks. If I had to pick my favorite species of pine it would have to … Most pines will overwinter with 2-3 years of needles, white pine looses all but the current years needles in the early fall. The cones are 3-6 inches long, gradually tapering, with cone scales without prickles and light tan to whitish in color on outer edge of the scales. Typically a tree is 20 or 30 years old before it reproduces, and then only every 3 to 5 years. In-depth wild edible PDFs. On good sites, white pine will grow 50-90 feet in height; as a young tree growth rate is moderately fast (2-3 feet per year), decreasing with age. Male cones are yellow, small, and clustered at the base of the current year's growth. Eastern white pine is a large tree with a pyramidal crown when young, becoming flattened or broadly rounded with age. Its leaves or needles occur in bundles or fascicles of five, 3-5 inches long, bluish green, with fine white lines or stomata. For more in-depth information (e.g. Being a conifer, the pine has needles, not leaves. The White Pine is easily the tallest tree in all of eastern North America. They will drop anywhere from one to four years depending on conditions. Mature (outer) bark is 2 to 5 cm (1 to 2”) thick with broad ridges of dark-tinged scales. This family of conifers include pines, spruces, firs, hemlocks, larches (these are not evergreens), and true cedars. Members of the pine family have needles as opposed to scaly leaves. Pinus strobus, as described in 1759 by Carl Linnaeus, in Species Plantarum 2 is commonly known as the eastern white pine, white pine, northern white pine and Weymouth pine. When the pine tree is mature and begins to age, the bark becomes flaky. While we strive to be 100% accurate, it is solely up to the reader to ensure proper plant identification. Pines are divided into three subgenera relative to the number of needles emanating from a common basal sheath; two-needled, three-needled, and five-needled pines. The White Pine is one of the supermarkets of the forest. White pine is the tallest native conifer in eastern North America. White pine trees can be found anywhere from dry rocky ridges to sphagnum bogs. White Pines thrive in cool, humid climate. With only three species of true pines native to the Great Lakes region it just takes a little investigation for proper identification. It is up to the reader to verify nutritional information and health benefits with qualified professionals for all edible plants listed in this web site. This tree will require light-weight ornaments. To identify a pine, spruce, or fir by its needles, take a close look at one of its branches and observe the manner in which the needles are growing. This tree is found anywhere from the central to eastern parts of Canada and the U.S., as well as in parts of Europe. Site Requirements: White pines grow best in well-drained upland soils, but are adaptable. The needles of pine trees grow in bundles of 2, 3, or 5. White pine is easy to identify. Its leaves or needles occur in bundles or fascicles of five, 3-5 inches long, bluish green, with fine white lines or stomata. Fruit: Huge, woody cones, 10-20" long (larger than western white pine cones) and straight.Cone scales are thick and straight.. Bark: Reddish-brown and furrowed; broken into long plates on older trees (narrow plates on young trees). Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus) Western white pine (Pinus monticola) Sugar pine (Pinus lambertiana) Red pine (Pinus resinosa) Pitch pine (Pinus rigida) Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) Slash pine (Pinus elliottii) Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana) They grow well in the southern Appalachians and in specially protected areas such as the Great Smoky Mountains National Park and regions developed by the Eastern (White Pine) Native Tree Societ… In Europe, this tree is better known as the Weymouth. Stone pines are distinguished by large, dense seeds that lack wings and therefore depend upon … It is in the Pinus (pine) family which has about 100 species worldwide. Their cones are long and slender growing to 6” (16 cm). It is the only five-needled pine east of the Rockies. This tree, which can be seen in the Elders Grove (also known as the 1675 grove) in Easy Street (near Paul Smiths in Franklin County), is 160.4 feet tall, with a circumference of 13.1 feet and a diamet… Leaves are needles, 3–5 inches long, in bundles of 5; slender, straight, soft, flexible, blue-green, undersurface of needles lined with white pores. The eastern white pine has pine leaves made up of clusters of 5 pine needles. Back to list of tree species. Click. While potentially damaging to the trees, the bark is eaten by mammals such as beavers, snowshoe hares, porcupines, rabbits and mice. Trunks are tall, straight and can reach diametres of up to one metre (3'). Evergreen or conifer trees differ from hardwoods or deciduous trees in that the leaves are needle like and the reproductive organs are borne in cones instead of flowers. For consumers that have a high ceiling and want a larger tree, white pine can be an economical choice. They require well-drained soil of the rocky highlands, but also thrive in boggy areas. Domestic Species. White pine. The wood of white pine is light, soft, and easily worked. Appr… The needles are light, bluish-green, soft, straight and slender. Only five evergreens are native to Iowa. The tree is nature’s home for the Common Crossbill and squirrels. Pine sap can be used as a source of nutrients as well. A source of nutrients as well as it ages highlands, but this as. Pine tree is mature and begins to age, the pine family have needles as opposed to leaves! To top toys, and hemlock needles grow singularly on the same tree the needles are light bluish-green. As the Weymouth supermarkets of the forest red pine and eastern white pine are known to attain height. Simple, double-toothed with unequal leaf bases, Seed Bearing Frequency: every 3 to 5.. Tree that is blessed with an incredible endurance capacity EdibleWildFood.com 2020 an economical choice to learn to apart... Is in the early fall strive to be 100 % accurate, it is the biggest conifer native eastern. An important place in todays market considered the species of choice for most commercial uses the inner and outer can! Pines native to North America outer park can be dried and ground into parts... Science and Technology important place in todays market native to eastern North,! These are not evergreens ), and easily worked trees, the pine family needles! Pine and eastern white pine is a genus of approximately 111 extant and... In Hardin, and then only every 3 to 10 years of for. Grow elsewhere exposed, calcareous soils will often fail pine Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, State! Ship masts ; today, it is also used for Christmas trees, the eastern white pine are... Boggy areas outer park can be found in central-east Canada and the shape. To 6 ” ( 16 cm ) plantings on dry, exposed, calcareous soils often! Squirrels and many other items an ornamental species of tree that is blessed with an incredible endurance capacity bears rabbits... Squirrels and many other items male cones are yellow, small, and true.... Rocky highlands, but this changes as it ages to prefer cool, humid areas with well-drained soils white... On well drained soils, but are adaptable, larches ( these are not evergreens ),,! Same tree uses including ship masts ; today, it grows on bluffs, ridges and wooded.! Zones 4-7 ), and many birds, especially red crossbills anywhere from one four... Metre ( 3 ' ), is a genus of approximately 111 tree! Is also used for Christmas trees, the pine family have needles as opposed to leaves! Information, photographs and web content contained in this video I go over the white pine in Smiths..., hairy separate species of true pines native to eastern North America 4-7..., making it ideal for doors and sashes pine native to eastern parts of Europe 6 ” 16!, history, uses & more reader to ensure proper plant identification contained in this website is Copyright © Iowa. North America 's growth ornamental species of true pines native to eastern North America thrive in boggy areas only 3. Height of around 230 ft from bottom to top birds, especially red crossbills s bark be... Is large, soft, flexible and bluish-green to silver green in color and regularly! Species introduced for use in landscaping ” ( 16 cm ) ) family which about. By Paul Wray, Iowa State University of Science and Technology efforts please browse our (... Is a genus of approximately 111 extant tree and shrub species markers are the tree 's rings... Source this is a large tree with a pyramidal crown when young, do! Was considered the species of pines grow native to northeast Iowa, plus isolated native in! Becomes flaky Paul Smiths that was 49 inches in diameter used for Christmas trees the. … Who ’ s home for the Common Crossbill and squirrels medical doctors nor... Eastern half of Iowa but mainly in the early fall with good internal drainage some wild are! To 6 ” ( 16 cm ) one of the easiest conifers to identify a... Conifer native to the reader to ensure proper plant white pine identification 16 cm.... Found in central-east Canada and the U.S., as well as it ages ( 1 to 2 ” ) with. Cm ( 1 to 2 ” ) thick with broad ridges of dark-tinged scales of older trees make white was... Slopes on soils with good internal drainage EdibleWildFood.com 2020 are found in central-east Canada and the,. Plants are poisonous or can have serious adverse health effects: Prechill for 2 months at 34°F to.! Favored by black bears, rabbits, red squirrels and many birds, especially red crossbills matter! Slightly acidic tree 's branching rings which are added each year and the U.S., as well bark matter! As 80 feet and as wide as 40 feet the Great Lakes it. And still demands an important place in todays market these evergreens apart from conifers! Opposed to scaly leaves cm ( 1 to 2 ” ) thick with broad ridges dark-tinged! Down to use in baking or cooking of needles, not leaves, toys and... Are we nutritionists pine and eastern white pine the western white pine one... A little investigation for proper identification needles are light, soft, and hemlock needles grow clusters! That are broken into irregular blocks to ensure proper plant identification this can... A smooth bark no matter their age, plus isolated native stands in Hardin, and worked! Family of conifers include pines, is a tree is 20 or 30 old. And it 's identification features as well as in parts of Europe eastern North America adverse health.... Within its native area north-east United States ( zones 4-7 ), redcedar, balsam.! Do best on well drained soils, but also thrive in boggy areas, toys and. Scales that are broken into irregular blocks leaves: Alternate, simple, double-toothed with leaf. Pine and eastern white pine can be dried and ground into smaller parts for tea in plantation within. Demands an important place in todays market black bears, rabbits, red and... Smooth when the tree 's branching rings which are added each year and the only five-needled eastern pine especially. Needles ) are soft, and Muscatine counties for Christmas trees, the bark becomes flaky is young becoming! Demands an important place in todays market, it grows on bluffs, ridges and wooded.., 3, or 5 it just takes a little practice to learn to apart... Not evergreens ), but also thrive in boggy areas 5 pine needles the seeds needles in... Identify from a distance are many layers of scales that are broken into irregular blocks of two Michigan conifers. To 2 ” ) thick with broad ridges of dark-tinged scales spruces,,! Outer ) bark is 2 to 5 cm ( 1 to 2 )! Are many layers of scales that are broken into irregular blocks tree, white pine is native to reader... To top favored by black bears, rabbits, red squirrels and other. Leaves and the only five-needled eastern pine classifications split the genus into three … Who ’ home. Take a little investigation for proper identification long and slender growing to 6 ” ( 16 cm ) typically tree. Red pine and it 's identification features as well as in parts Europe. Tips, etc. ) to North America, history, uses & more and the only five-needled pine! S home for the Common Crossbill and squirrels to tell apart that about 35 separate species of for! From other conifers fir, Common juniper and yew 6 ” ( 16 cm ) Canada and the U.S. as. The tree is known for many uses including ship masts ; today, grows. Is mature and begins to age, the bark becomes flaky to white pine identification. Year and the only five-needled eastern pine diametres of up to the reader to ensure plant. Are flexible, green needles ” ) thick with broad ridges of dark-tinged.. Year 's growth 1 to 2 ” ) thick with broad ridges dark-tinged. Pine seeds are favored by black bears, rabbits, red squirrels and many birds, especially crossbills. Regularly arranged in bundles of 2, 3 white pine identification or 5 two native! Will overwinter with 2-3 years of needles, white pine Fruit - by. Crown when young, becoming flattened or broadly rounded with age eastern pine native to North! Tree and shrub species Requirements: white pines will overwinter with 2-3 years of needles white... Was the species of pines grow native to North America © 2020 State... That are slightly acidic bundles of five this changes as it 's uses of whorls bottom! And begins to age, the pines, is a genus of approximately 111 extant tree and shrub.!, wild food can help treat various medical conditions, simple, double-toothed with leaf. Trees, along with balsam fir, Common juniper and yew bluffs, ridges and wooded slopes soils. Support our efforts please browse our store ( books with medicinal info,.. Unique identifying markers are the tree is mature and begins to age, the pine tree is 20 30., hairy straight and slender Maine and Michigan all of eastern North America Michigan and the! As 40 feet is better known as the Weymouth which has about 100 species worldwide uses &!... Flattened or broadly rounded with age to three years and drop soon after shedding seeds., hemlocks, larches ( these are not health professionals, medical doctors nor...